Last updated: 2020-10-25

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Knit directory: r4ds_book/

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Workflow …

object_name <- value can be read as “object name gets value”

Find the <- tedious to enter? RStudio has a shortcut Alt + - to enter it for you.

Alternately there’s the great {styler} package that you may use to convert your code to the preferred style.

  1. Go to Tools -> Install Packages and install styler

  2. Else go to the Github page to install.

  3. In your code select the section you want to format (not necessary if you want to do for the entire file).

    • Go to Addins
    • STYLER
    • Choose Style selection or the option appropriate for your task.

Sometime you have an assignment, but you also want to print your variable to view its contents. Do this by surrounding the assignment with ().

( y <- seq(1, 10, length.out = 5) )

[1]  1.00  3.25  5.50  7.75 10.00


  1. Why does this code not work?

    my_variable <- 10
    [1] 10

    Look carefully! (This may seem like an exercise in pointlessness, but training your brain to notice even the tiniest difference will pay off when programming.)

    It doesn’t work because the i in the my_variable has been replaced by another character ı.

  2. Tweak each of the following R commands so that they run correctly:

    ggplot(dota = mpg) + 
      geom_point(mapping = aes(x = displ, y = hwy))
    fliter(mpg, cyl = 8)
    filter(diamond, carat > 3)
      ggplot(data = mpg) +
        geom_point(mapping = aes(x = displ, y = hwy))

    filter(mpg, cyl == 8)
        # A tibble: 70 x 11
           manufacturer model     displ  year   cyl trans  drv     cty   hwy fl    class
           <chr>        <chr>     <dbl> <int> <int> <chr>  <chr> <int> <int> <chr> <chr>
         1 audi         a6 quatt~   4.2  2008     8 auto(~ 4        16    23 p     mids~
         2 chevrolet    c1500 su~   5.3  2008     8 auto(~ r        14    20 r     suv  
         3 chevrolet    c1500 su~   5.3  2008     8 auto(~ r        11    15 e     suv  
         4 chevrolet    c1500 su~   5.3  2008     8 auto(~ r        14    20 r     suv  
         5 chevrolet    c1500 su~   5.7  1999     8 auto(~ r        13    17 r     suv  
         6 chevrolet    c1500 su~   6    2008     8 auto(~ r        12    17 r     suv  
         7 chevrolet    corvette    5.7  1999     8 manua~ r        16    26 p     2sea~
         8 chevrolet    corvette    5.7  1999     8 auto(~ r        15    23 p     2sea~
         9 chevrolet    corvette    6.2  2008     8 manua~ r        16    26 p     2sea~
        10 chevrolet    corvette    6.2  2008     8 auto(~ r        15    25 p     2sea~
        # ... with 60 more rows
    filter(diamonds, carat > 3)
        # A tibble: 32 x 10
           carat cut     color clarity depth table price     x     y     z
           <dbl> <ord>   <ord> <ord>   <dbl> <dbl> <int> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>
         1  3.01 Premium I     I1       62.7    58  8040  9.1   8.97  5.67
         2  3.11 Fair    J     I1       65.9    57  9823  9.15  9.02  5.98
         3  3.01 Premium F     I1       62.2    56  9925  9.24  9.13  5.73
         4  3.05 Premium E     I1       60.9    58 10453  9.26  9.25  5.66
         5  3.02 Fair    I     I1       65.2    56 10577  9.11  9.02  5.91
         6  3.01 Fair    H     I1       56.1    62 10761  9.54  9.38  5.31
         7  3.65 Fair    H     I1       67.1    53 11668  9.53  9.48  6.38
         8  3.24 Premium H     I1       62.1    58 12300  9.44  9.4   5.85
         9  3.22 Ideal   I     I1       62.6    55 12545  9.49  9.42  5.92
        10  3.5  Ideal   H     I1       62.8    57 12587  9.65  9.59  6.03
        # ... with 22 more rows
  3. Press Alt + Shift + K. What happens? How can you get to the same place using the menus?

    It opens the shortcuts popup page. You may close the page by pressing ESC.

    To get there through the menus go to Tools -> Keyboard Shortcuts Help

R version 3.6.3 (2020-02-29)
Platform: x86_64-w64-mingw32/x64 (64-bit)
Running under: Windows 10 x64 (build 18363)

Matrix products: default

[1] LC_COLLATE=English_South Africa.1252  LC_CTYPE=English_South Africa.1252   
[3] LC_MONETARY=English_South Africa.1252 LC_NUMERIC=C                         
[5] LC_TIME=English_South Africa.1252    

attached base packages:
[1] stats     graphics  grDevices utils     datasets  methods   base     

other attached packages:
 [1] flair_0.0.2     forcats_0.5.0   stringr_1.4.0   dplyr_1.0.0    
 [5] purrr_0.3.4     readr_1.3.1     tidyr_1.1.0     tibble_3.0.3   
 [9] ggplot2_3.3.0   tidyverse_1.3.0 workflowr_1.6.2

loaded via a namespace (and not attached):
 [1] tidyselect_1.1.0 xfun_0.13        haven_2.2.0      lattice_0.20-38 
 [5] colorspace_1.4-1 vctrs_0.3.2      generics_0.0.2   htmltools_0.5.0 
 [9] yaml_2.2.1       utf8_1.1.4       rlang_0.4.7      later_1.0.0     
[13] pillar_1.4.6     withr_2.2.0      glue_1.4.1       DBI_1.1.0       
[17] dbplyr_1.4.3     modelr_0.1.6     readxl_1.3.1     lifecycle_0.2.0 
[21] munsell_0.5.0    gtable_0.3.0     cellranger_1.1.0 rvest_0.3.5     
[25] evaluate_0.14    labeling_0.3     knitr_1.28       httpuv_1.5.2    
[29] fansi_0.4.1      broom_0.5.6      Rcpp_1.0.4.6     promises_1.1.0  
[33] backports_1.1.6  scales_1.1.0     jsonlite_1.7.0   farver_2.0.3    
[37] fs_1.4.1         hms_0.5.3        digest_0.6.25    stringi_1.4.6   
[41] grid_3.6.3       rprojroot_1.3-2  cli_2.0.2        tools_3.6.3     
[45] magrittr_1.5     crayon_1.3.4     whisker_0.4      pkgconfig_2.0.3 
[49] ellipsis_0.3.1   xml2_1.3.2       reprex_0.3.0     lubridate_1.7.8 
[53] rstudioapi_0.11  assertthat_0.2.1 rmarkdown_2.4    httr_1.4.2      
[57] R6_2.4.1         nlme_3.1-144     git2r_0.26.1     compiler_3.6.3